No modern construction project is without surveying work. They precede, accompany and complete the construction process.
Geodetic works at the construction site are among the most important in the general complex of surveys. A general layout of the construction site is developed on the basis of a large scale topographic plan obtained as a result of surveying, on which buildings, structures, transport routes, engineering networks, etc. are designed. No less important is the topographic plan when designing general construction plan where the whole complex of auxiliary and temporary buildings and facilities is outlined. Topographic plan serves in addition, as a source material for working drawings of vertical planning, architectural and construction drawings of buildings, structures and various engineering networks.
To transfer projects of buildings and structures on the ground use geodesic base, created at the construction site in the form of polygonometric network or construction grid. From the points of geodetic base breakdown on the ground position of the main axes of buildings and structures, from which then produce a detailed breakdown of parts of buildings.
An important step in the development of projects of buildings are engineering-geological surveys, which are evaluated on the basis of hydrogeological and soil conditions of the site. The results of these studies are used to select the type and design of foundation, justify the scheme of site drainage and other design solutions. To carry out such work, we attract specialized companies that have the necessary specialists, tools and equipment to perform them. Many companies for their regular customers offer a good discount on such work, while guaranteeing their high quality.
In the course of construction do a variety of control measurements, which together with the layout work to ensure the erection of buildings and structures in accordance with their projected dimensions and shapes.
With the use of precast concrete structures in industrial and civil construction, geodetic work becomes particularly important. Under these conditions, there is a need for daily and continuous verification of the correctness of the structural elements being installed.
At the end of construction, a geodetic survey is made to produce drawings on which the executive master plan of the completed construction project is prepared.
Construction defects can be detected and corrected with the help of geodetic inspections. Underestimating the geodetic work at the construction site leads to construction delays, alterations, and a reduction in quality.
For example, axis displacement in masonry buildings significantly reduces the support area of beams or decking on walls or columns and causes overstressing of the masonry under the support planes. The strength of brick columns reinforced with meshes is almost halved when the axis is shifted by only 6 cm. Therefore, geodetic maintenance of construction works is an inseparable and the most responsible part of construction production.